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Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Michael Clugston, Malcolm Stewart, and Fabrice Birembaut
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date: 17 June 2024

p. 209 Chapter 23 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivativeslocked

p. 209 Chapter 23 Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivativeslocked

  • Michael Clugston, Michael Clugstonformerly Tonbridge School
  • Malcolm StewartMalcolm StewartUniversity of Oxford
  •  and Fabrice BirembautFabrice BirembautCaen, France

Abstract

This chapter discusses carboxylic acids and their derivatives. It notes RCOOH as the general formula for carboxylic acids. Thus, the weak acids neutralize alkalis and react with carbonates. Additionally, acyl chlorides typically react with water, alcohols, ammonia, and amines. In esters, the presence of a concentrated sulfuric acid catalyst forms an equilibrium mixture as the option of leaving the tetrahedral intermediate becomes available. On the other hand, acylation reactions are triggered when an acyl group replaces a hydrogen atom in the nucleophile. The chapter also covers the nucleophilic additional-elimination reactions of acid derivatives. It lists the general formula of esters and acyl chlorides as well.

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