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Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Michael Clugston, Malcolm Stewart, and Fabrice Birembaut
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date: 24 June 2024

p. 85 Chapter 9 Spontaneous Change, Entropy, and Gibbs Energylocked

p. 85 Chapter 9 Spontaneous Change, Entropy, and Gibbs Energylocked

  • Michael Clugston, Michael Clugstonformerly Tonbridge School
  • Malcolm StewartMalcolm StewartUniversity of Oxford
  •  and Fabrice BirembautFabrice BirembautCaen, France

Abstract

This chapter explores the concepts of spontaneous change, entropy, and Gibbs energy. Whilst spontaneous changes have a natural tendency to occur, the Gibbs energy equation cannot be used to predict the reaction rate. Entropy is a measure of the dispersal of energy. The criterion for spontaneous change is mostly based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. Gibbs energy, additionally, is the combination of enthalpy and entropy together to form a single physical quantity. An Ellingham diagram includes graphs showing the Gibbs energy change of formation for various metal oxides as a function of temperature. Finally, the chapter looks into the possibilities of negligible entropy changes or enthalpy changes in the systems.

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