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Introduction to Bioinformatics

Introduction to Bioinformatics

Arthur M. Lesk
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date: 14 July 2024

3. The panorama of lifelocked

3. The panorama of lifelocked

  • Arthur M. LeskArthur M. LeskThe Pennsylvania State University

Abstract

This chapter discusses the basic sizes, contents, and organizing principles of simple and complex genomes. A single gene coding for a particular protein corresponds to a sequence of nucleotides. In cells, genes may appear on either strand of DNA. Bacterial protein-coding genes are continuous regions of DNA, while in eukaryotes, the nucleotide sequences that encode amino acid sequences of proteins are organized in a more complex manner. The chapter then looks at proteomics and transcriptomics. It considers how the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ systematically, before exploring the variety of transcribed RNA molecules encoded in the human genome. The chapter then highlights the power of DNA sequences in studying human history, including inference of human migration patterns, and as records of plant and animal domestication. It also assesses the power of comparative genomics to identify features responsible for differences between species.

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