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Molecular Biology of RNA

Molecular Biology of RNA (Second Edition)

David Elliott and Michael Ladomery
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date: 18 July 2024

p. 222 11 Translation of messenger RNAlocked

p. 222 11 Translation of messenger RNAlocked

  • David ElliottDavid ElliottInstitute of Genetic Medicine, Newcastle University
  •  and Michael LadomeryMichael LadomeryFaculty of Health and Applied Science, University of the West of England

Abstract

This chapter covers the process of mRNA translation. Itbegins by reviewing the structure and function of the essential machinery of translation, namely the ribosome and transfer RNA. The chapter outlines the three phases of translation: initiation, elongation, and termination. It also discusses several ways in which mRNA translation can be regulated. The chapter details how ribosomes catalyse the synthesis of polypeptide chains that form when amino acids are covalently linked through peptide bonds. The chapter explains that ribosomes are made up of large and small subunits that contain ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and a multitude of ribosomal proteins. The chapter then looks at the different components of the ribosomal subunits that are distinguished according to the rate at which they sediment, as measured in Svedberg units.

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