This chapter discusses adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the donor of the free energy that is used for muscle contraction, for the supporting ionic pumps that regulate muscle electrical activity, and for biosynthesis. It also talks about the molecule of ATP that is made up of a molecule of adenosine and consists of a purine base, a five-carbon sugar, and a chain of three phosphate groups. It also analyszes the phosphate groups that are attached by what are known as high-energy bonds, which means that considerable energy is required to produce the attaching reaction. The chapter points out that the formation of the high-energy bond is known as phosphorylation, while the breaking of the bond is known as hydrolysis. It details how adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is formed when a molecule of ATP is hydrolyzed and loses one of its phosphate groups.
Biochemical Bases for Performance
Blood cell genesis: red cell, white cell and platelet families
This chapter evaluates the types of blood cell found within peripheral blood. It begins by explaining blood cell production and the structure of the bone marrow. The red colouration of our blood is derived from the red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, and in particular the intracellular respiratory pigment haemoglobin. Meanwhile, our capacity to fight infection comes from heterogeneous populations of white blood cells, also called leucocytes, with each population having a different function. Under the umbrella term of white blood cells are three types of cell characterized by the types of granule within their cytoplasm. These cells are broadly called granulocytes, and more specifically are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The chapter then looks at stem cells, haemopoiesis, erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis, haemostasis, granulopoiesis, and monopoiesis.
The Bones of the Body
This chapter explains the basic physiology of the musculoskeletal system, key muscle groups, and their joints. It shows that the musculoskeletal system offers both protection for people's organs, and a means of locomotion, which involves moving to gather resources or escape from danger. In trauma, the nature of an injury is intrinsically linked to the physical forces exerted on the body. Thus, physicians must have a deep understanding of anatomy, physiology, and physics when considering trauma sustained. The chapter also mentions various changes to the musculoskeletal system as humans age, which then result in a greater risk of damage.
A Breath of Fresh Air
This chapter explores the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. It examines the mechanics of ventilation while also elaborating on the division of the respiratory system into upper and lower respiratory tracts. Both the upper and lower respiratory tract are very vulnerable to smoking-related damage, as they directly receive inhaled smoke from cigarettes and other tobacco products. The chapter cites how cancers, the best-known and most feared diseases which affect the gas exchange system, can occur at any level of the respiratory tract. It then explains how surgery aims to improve quality of life through tonsillectomies or can be life-saving, when it comes to a lung transplant.
A Brief History of Surgery
This chapter provides a brief history of surgery, and highlights the importance of understanding the anatomy and physiology of the human body. It details how technological advances have affected the development of surgery. In early human history, surgery was crude and possibly performed for magico-religious reasons. As anatomical knowledge advanced, surgeons were able to learn how they could safely operate on various parts of the body. The chapter explains that the horrifying casualties of the First and Second World Wars resulted in significant improvements in trauma surgery and reconstructive surgery. Moreover, post-war innovations allowed more adventurous surgical procedures and higher survival rates from more routine procedures.
This chapter focuses on cancers that result from the abnormal proliferation of any type of cell, including the distinction between benign tumors, which remain confined to their site of origin, and malignant tumors, which can invade normal tissues and spread throughout the body. It highlights genes that encode cyclin D1, Cdk4, and Cdk6 and act as oncogenes by stimulating cell cycle progression. It also describes mutations in both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that contribute to the progressive development of human cancers. The chapter reviews genetic testing, which identify individuals with inherited mutations in oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes and may allow early detection and more effective treatment of high-risk patients. It assesses the development of drugs targeted against specific oncogenes that has led to the discovery of new therapeutic agents that act selectively against cancer cells.
Cardiorespiratory Bases for Performance
This chapter provides a background on cardiovascular and respiratory systems from the perspective of the athlete. Their most important function is to deliver oxygen to the exercising muscles and to remove carbon dioxide, while maintaining blood flow to vital organs. The chapter explains how the cardiovascular system matches the blood flow to skeletal muscle to its metabolic rate. It also analyszes two circuits of the cardiovascular system that are arranged both in parallel and in series: pulmonary circuit and systemic circuit. The chapter explains that the pulmonary circuit conducts blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart. It clarifies how the systemic circuit conducts blood from the left side of the heart to all the tissues in the body and back to the right side of the heart.
This chapter focuses on the cardiovascular system. This provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and transports metabolic waste products away from cells. The chapter talks about the heart and the extensive system of vessels known as the circulatory system. It explains that the heart acts as a pump while the circulatory system acts as a transport system for blood. The chapter highlights the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system which is essential in order to maintain an appropriate cellular environment for all cells in the human body. It emphasizes that the heart can be thought of as a pump that ejects blood into the pulmonary and systemic circulations.
Geoffrey M. Cooper and Kenneth W. Adams
The Cell contains five parts. The first part, Part I, introduces the topic with fundamentals and foundations including an examination of molecules and membranes, bioenergetics, metabolism, and genomics. Part II is about the flow of genetic information. It looks at genes and genomes, replication, maintenance, RNA synthesis, RNA processing, protein synthesis, processing, and regulation. The third part is about cell structure and function. It looks at the nucleus, the plasma membrane, and cell walls amongst other topics. The final part, Cell Regulation, looks at cell signaling, the cell cycle, cell renewal and cell death, and cancer.
The Cell Cycle
This chapter discusses eukaryotic cell cycles that are divided into four discrete phases: M, G1, S, and G2. It explains that M phase consists of mitosis, which is usually followed by cytokinesis, while the S phase is the period of DNA replication. It also looks at growth factors that stimulate animal cell proliferation by inducing synthesis of the D-type cyclins, which associate with Cdk4 and Cdk6 in G1. The chapter investigates M phase, which is initiated by activation of Cdk1/cyclin B, Aurora, and Polo-like kinases that are responsible for chromatin condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, and reorganization of microtubules to form the mitotic spindle. It reviews the activity of APC/C that is inhibited by the spindle assembly checkpoint until all chromosomes are properly aligned on the spindle.
Cell Renewal and Cell Death
This chapter describes several types of differentiated cells, including skin fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and liver cells. These resume proliferation as required to replace cells that have been lost because of injury or cell death. The chapter looks at adult stem cells that are used clinically in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It also talks about embryonic stem cells which can be grown in the undifferentiated state while retaining the ability to differentiate into all of the cell types in an organism. The chapter investigates how mammals are cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is transplanted into an enucleated egg. It highlights the key role that programmed cell death plays in both the maintenance of adult tissues and embryonic development.
This chapter highlights signaling molecules that are secreted by one cell and bind to receptors expressed by a target cell. It talks about the occurrence of cell–cell signaling by direct cell contact or by endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signaling. It also considers G protein-coupled receptors as the largest family of cell surface receptors, including the receptors for many hormones and neurotransmitters which transmit signals to intracellular targets via the intermediary action of G proteins. The chapter reviews tyrosine kinases, which are the receptors for most growth factors. It covers other receptors that act in association with nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, including members of the Janus kinase (JAK) family.
Edited by Guy Orchard and Brian Nation
Cell Structure & Function starts by introducing cell structure, molecular construction, and communication strategies. It looks at techniques for studying cells; anatomy, embryology, and cell families; blood cell genesis; nerves; and lungs. Next it turns to the alimentary canal, cells and commercial bacteria of the alimentary canal, and the cells of the vascular and lymphatic systems. There is then a chapter on connective tissue, bones, cartilage, and muscle. Next, the text deals with the cells of the liver and kidney, reproductive cells and gametogenesis, and the endocrine system. Finally, the book looks at the cells of the skin.
Cell Walls, the Extracellular Matrix, and Cell Interactions
This chapter discusses the peptidoglycan, which is the principal component of bacterial cell walls. These consist of polysaccharide chains cross-linked by short peptides. The chapter covers the cell walls of algae and higher plants that are composed of fibrous polysaccharides embedded in a gel-like matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. It also examines the major structural proteins of the extracellular matrix which are members of the collagen family. The chapter also hsows how collagens form the fibrils that characterize the extracellular matrix of connective tissues and networks in basal laminae. The chapter highlights polysaccharides in the form of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans which make up the bulk of the extracellular matrix. It outlines four major groups of cell adhesion proteins which mediate selective cell–cell interactions: selectins, integrins, immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily members, and cadherins.
Cells and microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract
This chapter describes the cells and microbial flora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Around 10 billion human cells, which are replaced every three to four days, interact with an even greater number of microorganisms, a ratio of around one cell to ten microorganisms. This interaction is key to the proper development and functioning of the GI tract and the immune system, as well as to the assimilation and production of essential nutrients. However, scientists are only just beginning to understand the full extent of this vital, symbiotic relationship. The chapter considers these complex interactions, in health and disease, and how an understanding of these mechanisms may lead to improvements in health and the management of some types of illness.
Cells of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems
This chapter outlines the cells and organs of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems, and looks at how together they form the circulation. Almost all of the cells that make up the vessels and organs are endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes), macrophages, and fibroblasts. In various combinations they make up vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries, and lymphatics) and the organs of the heart, thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. The chapter then examines the different types of disease that affect the cells, vessels, and organs of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. These include atherosclerosis (involving arteries), venous thromboembolism or VTE (involving veins), and tumour-associated lymphadenopathy (affecting lymph nodes).
Cells of the endocrine system
This chapter discusses the cells of the endocrine system, which are scattered throughout the body. They occur either within an epithelial surface such as the endocrine cells of the respiratory tract and alimentary canal, or within the stroma of another organ such as the C- or parafollicular cells of the thyroid, or the cells comprising the islets of Langerhans situated among the glands of the exocrine tissue of the pancreas. Endocrine cells also aggregate to form discrete organs or endocrine glands such as the adrenal glands, parathyroids, thyroid, pituitary, and pineal gland. The functions of the endocrine system are essential for maintaining homeostasis and the coordination of body growth and development, and are similar to those of the nervous system. Both systems communicate information to peripheral cells and organs, and because their functions are interrelated they are often referred to as the neuroendocrine system.
The Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement
This chapter focuses on membrane-enclosed organelles that constitute one level of the organizational substructure of eukaryotic cells. It highlights the cytoskeleton, which consists of a network of protein filaments extending throughout the cytoplasm and provides a structural framework for the cell. The chapter also describes how the cytoskeleton is responsible for cell movement and the transport of organelles and other structures through the cytoplasm. The chapter considers cytoskeleton as a dynamic structure which is continually reorganized as cells move and change shape, such as during mitosis and cell division. It discusses the three principal types of protein filaments that compose the cytoskeleton: actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.
Tony Warford and Tony Madgwick
This chapter addresses the digestive system, which is a complex association of different integrated anatomical components with the primary task of extracting nutrients, water, and electrolytes from ingested food before collecting and excreting the indigestible waste. Thus, the system can be divided into a region for mechanical disruption and initial digestion of food (the oral pharynx), with delivery of this mass via the oesophagus to the stomach for further processing by extracellular digestion. Most nutrient uptake occurs in the small intestine (further divided into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), while water and electrolyte absorption occurs mainly in the colon. Finally, the undigested remnants are collected in the distal colon and rectum before expulsion by defaecation. A secondary, but important, function is that of immune surveillance provided by aggregates of lymphoid tissue associated with the entire alimentary tract.
The endocrine system
This chapter reviews how the endocrine system, together with the nervous system, controls the multitude of physiological processes in the body and ensures that homeostasis is achieved. It discusses the formation of hormones from derivatives of amino acids, peptides and proteins, and lipids. It also analyszes the chemical nature of the process by which anan individual hormone determinesing where its receptor is located. The chapter clarifies how the overall plasma levels are maintained at the appropriate level proportion by negative feedback mechanisms, although hormone secretion may display circadian rhythms. It mentions the pituitary gland. This is described as the master endocrine gland by virtue of the number of physiological processes it controls.