This chapter evaluates the types of blood cell found within peripheral blood. It begins by explaining blood cell production and the structure of the bone marrow. The red colouration of our blood is derived from the red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, and in particular the intracellular respiratory pigment haemoglobin. Meanwhile, our capacity to fight infection comes from heterogeneous populations of white blood cells, also called leucocytes, with each population having a different function. Under the umbrella term of white blood cells are three types of cell characterized by the types of granule within their cytoplasm. These cells are broadly called granulocytes, and more specifically are neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The chapter then looks at stem cells, haemopoiesis, erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis, haemostasis, granulopoiesis, and monopoiesis.
Blood cell genesis: red cell, white cell and platelet families
This chapter focuses on cancers that result from the abnormal proliferation of any type of cell, including the distinction between benign tumors, which remain confined to their site of origin, and malignant tumors, which can invade normal tissues and spread throughout the body. It highlights genes that encode cyclin D1, Cdk4, and Cdk6 and act as oncogenes by stimulating cell cycle progression. It also describes mutations in both oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that contribute to the progressive development of human cancers. The chapter reviews genetic testing, which identify individuals with inherited mutations in oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes and may allow early detection and more effective treatment of high-risk patients. It assesses the development of drugs targeted against specific oncogenes that has led to the discovery of new therapeutic agents that act selectively against cancer cells.
Geoffrey M. Cooper and Kenneth W. Adams
The Cell contains five parts. The first part, Part I, introduces the topic with fundamentals and foundations including an examination of molecules and membranes, bioenergetics, metabolism, and genomics. Part II is about the flow of genetic information. It looks at genes and genomes, replication, maintenance, RNA synthesis, RNA processing, protein synthesis, processing, and regulation. The third part is about cell structure and function. It looks at the nucleus, the plasma membrane, and cell walls amongst other topics. The final part, Cell Regulation, looks at cell signaling, the cell cycle, cell renewal and cell death, and cancer.
The Cell Cycle
This chapter discusses eukaryotic cell cycles that are divided into four discrete phases: M, G1, S, and G2. It explains that M phase consists of mitosis, which is usually followed by cytokinesis, while the S phase is the period of DNA replication. It also looks at growth factors that stimulate animal cell proliferation by inducing synthesis of the D-type cyclins, which associate with Cdk4 and Cdk6 in G1. The chapter investigates M phase, which is initiated by activation of Cdk1/cyclin B, Aurora, and Polo-like kinases that are responsible for chromatin condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown, fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, and reorganization of microtubules to form the mitotic spindle. It reviews the activity of APC/C that is inhibited by the spindle assembly checkpoint until all chromosomes are properly aligned on the spindle.
Cell Renewal and Cell Death
This chapter describes several types of differentiated cells, including skin fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and liver cells. These resume proliferation as required to replace cells that have been lost because of injury or cell death. The chapter looks at adult stem cells that are used clinically in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It also talks about embryonic stem cells which can be grown in the undifferentiated state while retaining the ability to differentiate into all of the cell types in an organism. The chapter investigates how mammals are cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer, in which the nucleus of an adult somatic cell is transplanted into an enucleated egg. It highlights the key role that programmed cell death plays in both the maintenance of adult tissues and embryonic development.
This chapter highlights signaling molecules that are secreted by one cell and bind to receptors expressed by a target cell. It talks about the occurrence of cell–cell signaling by direct cell contact or by endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine signaling. It also considers G protein-coupled receptors as the largest family of cell surface receptors, including the receptors for many hormones and neurotransmitters which transmit signals to intracellular targets via the intermediary action of G proteins. The chapter reviews tyrosine kinases, which are the receptors for most growth factors. It covers other receptors that act in association with nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, including members of the Janus kinase (JAK) family.
Edited by Guy Orchard and Brian Nation
Cell Structure & Function starts by introducing cell structure, molecular construction, and communication strategies. It looks at techniques for studying cells; anatomy, embryology, and cell families; blood cell genesis; nerves; and lungs. Next it turns to the alimentary canal, cells and commercial bacteria of the alimentary canal, and the cells of the vascular and lymphatic systems. There is then a chapter on connective tissue, bones, cartilage, and muscle. Next, the text deals with the cells of the liver and kidney, reproductive cells and gametogenesis, and the endocrine system. Finally, the book looks at the cells of the skin.
Cell Walls, the Extracellular Matrix, and Cell Interactions
This chapter discusses the peptidoglycan, which is the principal component of bacterial cell walls. These consist of polysaccharide chains cross-linked by short peptides. The chapter covers the cell walls of algae and higher plants that are composed of fibrous polysaccharides embedded in a gel-like matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. It also examines the major structural proteins of the extracellular matrix which are members of the collagen family. The chapter also hsows how collagens form the fibrils that characterize the extracellular matrix of connective tissues and networks in basal laminae. The chapter highlights polysaccharides in the form of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans which make up the bulk of the extracellular matrix. It outlines four major groups of cell adhesion proteins which mediate selective cell–cell interactions: selectins, integrins, immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily members, and cadherins.
Cells and microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract
This chapter describes the cells and microbial flora of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Around 10 billion human cells, which are replaced every three to four days, interact with an even greater number of microorganisms, a ratio of around one cell to ten microorganisms. This interaction is key to the proper development and functioning of the GI tract and the immune system, as well as to the assimilation and production of essential nutrients. However, scientists are only just beginning to understand the full extent of this vital, symbiotic relationship. The chapter considers these complex interactions, in health and disease, and how an understanding of these mechanisms may lead to improvements in health and the management of some types of illness.
Cells of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems
This chapter outlines the cells and organs of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems, and looks at how together they form the circulation. Almost all of the cells that make up the vessels and organs are endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes), macrophages, and fibroblasts. In various combinations they make up vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries, and lymphatics) and the organs of the heart, thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. The chapter then examines the different types of disease that affect the cells, vessels, and organs of the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. These include atherosclerosis (involving arteries), venous thromboembolism or VTE (involving veins), and tumour-associated lymphadenopathy (affecting lymph nodes).
Cells of the endocrine system
This chapter discusses the cells of the endocrine system, which are scattered throughout the body. They occur either within an epithelial surface such as the endocrine cells of the respiratory tract and alimentary canal, or within the stroma of another organ such as the C- or parafollicular cells of the thyroid, or the cells comprising the islets of Langerhans situated among the glands of the exocrine tissue of the pancreas. Endocrine cells also aggregate to form discrete organs or endocrine glands such as the adrenal glands, parathyroids, thyroid, pituitary, and pineal gland. The functions of the endocrine system are essential for maintaining homeostasis and the coordination of body growth and development, and are similar to those of the nervous system. Both systems communicate information to peripheral cells and organs, and because their functions are interrelated they are often referred to as the neuroendocrine system.
The Cytoskeleton and Cell Movement
This chapter focuses on membrane-enclosed organelles that constitute one level of the organizational substructure of eukaryotic cells. It highlights the cytoskeleton, which consists of a network of protein filaments extending throughout the cytoplasm and provides a structural framework for the cell. The chapter also describes how the cytoskeleton is responsible for cell movement and the transport of organelles and other structures through the cytoplasm. The chapter considers cytoskeleton as a dynamic structure which is continually reorganized as cells move and change shape, such as during mitosis and cell division. It discusses the three principal types of protein filaments that compose the cytoskeleton: actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments.
Tony Warford and Tony Madgwick
This chapter addresses the digestive system, which is a complex association of different integrated anatomical components with the primary task of extracting nutrients, water, and electrolytes from ingested food before collecting and excreting the indigestible waste. Thus, the system can be divided into a region for mechanical disruption and initial digestion of food (the oral pharynx), with delivery of this mass via the oesophagus to the stomach for further processing by extracellular digestion. Most nutrient uptake occurs in the small intestine (further divided into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum), while water and electrolyte absorption occurs mainly in the colon. Finally, the undigested remnants are collected in the distal colon and rectum before expulsion by defaecation. A secondary, but important, function is that of immune surveillance provided by aggregates of lymphoid tissue associated with the entire alimentary tract.
Fundamentals of Molecular Biology
This chapter begins with a review of the major discoveries that established the fundamental principles of molecular biology and enabled the development of recombinant DNA technology. It talks about antibodies, which have been applied to an ever-increasing array of techniques. It also explores techniques that have been and continue to be critical to ongoing progress in contemporary cell biology research. The chapter demonstrates the impact of the application of recombinant DNA technology, such as allowing individual eukaryotic genes to be isolated and characterized in detail. It shows how the application of recombinant DNA technology determines the complete sequences of cellular genomes and the manipulation of cellular genomes with striking precision.
Genes and Genomes
This chapter considers DNA as a genetic material that provides a blueprint to direct all cellular activities and specifies the developmental plan of multicellular organisms. It points out how an understanding of gene structure and function is fundamental to an appreciation of the molecular biology of cells. It also details the development of gene cloning, which enabled scientists to dissect complex eukaryotic genomes and probe the functions of eukaryotic genes. The chapter describes the advances in DNA sequencing that led to knowing the complete genome sequences of thousands of bacteria, of yeast, and of many species of plants, animals, and humans. It focuses on the organization of eukaryotic genes and the types of sequences in the genomes of higher eukaryotes, which play important roles in gene regulation rather than encoding proteins.
Genomics, Proteomics, and Systems Biology
This chapter considers the development of new technologies and their impact on understanding the molecular biology of cells. It describes complete genome sequences of a wide variety of organisms that provide a wealth of information that forms a new framework for studies of cell and molecular biology and opens new possibilities in medical practice. It also shows how the sequences of complete genomes are obtained and undertake large-scale analyses of all RNAs and proteins expressed in individual cells. The chapter reviews global experimental approaches that form the basis of the new field of systems biology, which seeks a quantitative understanding of the integrated behavior of complex biological systems. It outlines the basic approaches used in next-generation sequencing and global methods used to study gene expression.
Introducing the cell: the unit of life
Carole Hackney and David Furness
This introductory chapter provide an overview of cells, which are the basic unit of life and, with the exception of certain particulate forms that can reproduce under some conditions (viruses), make up all living things. The two main types of cell are prokaryotes, which lack a nucleus, and eukaryotes, which possess a nucleus. Eukaryotes may have evolved from prokaryotes acting together in a communal way initially, until eventually they became associated together within a single membrane. The modern eukaryotic cell is encapsulated in a plasma membrane, which contains a watery cytoplasm within which are a number of organelle types and a nucleus containing the genetic material of the cell. The chapter then looks at membrane systems, cell division, and tissue formation.
Introduction to anatomy and embryology
Joanne Murray and Ian Locke
This chapter begins by examining anatomy and physiology. Anatomy defines the spatial/structural relationships between the various components and organ systems of the body. Meanwhile, physiology is the study of the function of the body and the systems within it. Fine anatomy is the detailed, microscopical structure of individual organs or tissues. The chapter then describes the gross features of the human body and differentiates between fine and gross anatomy. The human body is composed of 11 major organ systems; each of these systems is composed of various cell and tissue types. The chapter also looks at fertilization and implantation, before considering foetal development. Finally, it studies the continued development of the ageing human through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and into old age.
Introduction to Cells and Cell Research
This chapter focuses on how cells are studied, and specifically examines some of their basic properties. It discusses the unity and diversity of present-day cells in terms of their evolution from a common ancestor. Cells share common fundamental properties that have been conserved throughout evolution. It also investigates complex organisms which are composed of collections of cells that function in a coordinated manner, noting different cells specialized to perform particular tasks. The chapter highlights the fundamental similarities between different types of cells which provide a unifying theme in cell biology, allowing the basic principles learned from experiments with one kind of cell to be extrapolated and generalized to other cell types. It analyzes experimental approaches used to study cells and reviews some of the major historical developments that have led to the current understanding of cell structure and function.
Kidney and urinary tract
Guy Orchard, David Muskett, and Brian Nation
This chapter highlights the cells of the kidney and urinary tract. The kidneys and urinary system provide the basis for homeostatic regulation of the body's water level, controlling electrolytes and fluid balance. The kidneys operate by a series of active and passive transport mechanisms to ensure efficient production of urine. They have numerous hormonal functions; for example, controlling blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin function, the production of red blood cells via the production of erythropoietin, processing vitamin D, and the production of antihypertensive lipids. The urinary system comprises two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and a single draining urethra. Anatomically, the kidneys are located on the posterior wall of the abdomen at around waist height. The chapter also looks at urinary system disease and kidney transplantation.