This chapter explains the basic physiology of the musculoskeletal system, key muscle groups, and their joints. It shows that the musculoskeletal system offers both protection for people's organs, and a means of locomotion, which involves moving to gather resources or escape from danger. In trauma, the nature of an injury is intrinsically linked to the physical forces exerted on the body. Thus, physicians must have a deep understanding of anatomy, physiology, and physics when considering trauma sustained. The chapter also mentions various changes to the musculoskeletal system as humans age, which then result in a greater risk of damage.
The Bones of the Body
A Breath of Fresh Air
This chapter explores the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. It examines the mechanics of ventilation while also elaborating on the division of the respiratory system into upper and lower respiratory tracts. Both the upper and lower respiratory tract are very vulnerable to smoking-related damage, as they directly receive inhaled smoke from cigarettes and other tobacco products. The chapter cites how cancers, the best-known and most feared diseases which affect the gas exchange system, can occur at any level of the respiratory tract. It then explains how surgery aims to improve quality of life through tonsillectomies or can be life-saving, when it comes to a lung transplant.
A Brief History of Surgery
This chapter provides a brief history of surgery, and highlights the importance of understanding the anatomy and physiology of the human body. It details how technological advances have affected the development of surgery. In early human history, surgery was crude and possibly performed for magico-religious reasons. As anatomical knowledge advanced, surgeons were able to learn how they could safely operate on various parts of the body. The chapter explains that the horrifying casualties of the First and Second World Wars resulted in significant improvements in trauma surgery and reconstructive surgery. Moreover, post-war innovations allowed more adventurous surgical procedures and higher survival rates from more routine procedures.
From Food to Faeces
This chapter details the processes of digestion, which is handled using a complex series of feedback loops. It explains that the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is a formidably complicated collection of interdependent organs. The organs of the gastrointestinal tract work from the mouth to the anus to break down and absorb the nutrients found in consumed food. Thus, any diseases affecting any part of the GI tract can have significant effects on people's nutritional state. The chapter explains that surgery can provide treatment for the disease, but the procedure might trigger other complications, such as colostomies or shortened bowels.
The Heart of the Matter
This chapter looks at the significance of having a healthy cardiovascular system. It acknowledges how terrifying it would be to have something wrong with a person's heart or circulation system. Thus, surgery offers numerous different options for successful treatments for cardiovascular diseases in parts of the world where healthcare is accessible and affordable. Diseases of the cardiovascular system may affect the blood vessels themselves, or affect the valves, electrical system or muscle of the heart. The chapter then looks into several cardiovascular system issues, such as arrhythmias, aneurysms, ailing pumps, and congenital heart problems before considering the procedure of heart transplantation.
William Fullick and James Fullick
Organs, Systems, and Surgery covers the anatomy and physiology of the key organ systems in the human body. It provides an overview of the anatomical details and physiological principles of the organ systems of the body and discusses the pathophysiology of common diseases that can affect them. It also considers how surgical approaches can be used to manage commonly presenting diseases of these systems. In addition, the primer explores surgery and anaesthesia both in an historical and contemporary context, examining how surgical and anaesthetic approaches have advanced over the centuries and how they continue to evolve to make surgery safer and more effective.
The Seat of Self and Neurosurgery
This chapter examines the inner workings of the nervous system and some ways to repair any damage to it. The nervous system is composed of the central and peripheral systems that provide control and communication to the body. The nervous system is as susceptible as any other organ to damage through trauma and its risk goes higher due to the inability of the nervous system to repair damaged neurones. Even though neurosurgery offers ways to manage acute and subacute damage to the brain and spinal cord, it is still a high-risk procedure. The chapter considers the extensive field of reconstructive neurology and bionics to improve the outcomes of brain and nerve damage.
The Story of Anaesthesia
This chapter focuses on the effects and development of anaesthesia. It explains that nearly all drugs in anaesthesia act on two basic principles of activation or suppression of cellular receptors and dependence on a concentration gradient. Modern anaesthesia involves precise doses of specially designed drugs that obliterate consciousness and provide pain relief. The chapter then looks at the equipment and techniques concerned with the anaesthetist at work. It looks into the debates surrounding anaesthetic drugs and how they work, and it references the relationship between GABA receptors with globally decreased neurone transmission within the brain and other organ systems.