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Chapter

Cover Why chemical reactions happen

Substitution and elimination reactions  

This chapter explores substitution and elimination reactions. It notes nucleophilic substitution by referencing the reaction between bromomethane and hydroxide alongside the carbon–bromine bond. The chapter notes the stabilization of positive charges, adjacent lone pairs, and adjacent bonds–conjugation. Additionally, it examines the elimination reactions by referencing the reaction between t–butyl bromide and hydroxide. It also includes the addition reactions–elimination in reverse while noting Markovnikov’s Rule. It demonstrates the equation behind the rate of elimination. Moreover, the chapter uses diagrams and equations to clarify the process of substitution and elimination.

Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Hydrocarbons: Alkenes  

This chapter focuses on alkenes, which are known to be unsaturated hydrocarbons with a carbon-carbon double bond. Ethene is known to be the simplest alkene, this is closely followed by propane. Alkenes undergo electrophilic addition reactions. This involves the addition of hydrogen halides, acidified water, and halogens. The chapter explains the Markovnikov's rule wherein the alkene and adduct are unsymmetrical. This is something which two isomers could form. Markovnikov's rule refers to the more stable carbocation forms carrying a positive charge with three bonds. The chapter also explicates the addition of a neutral molecule to ethene which is largely similar to the electrophilic addition of molecules under acidic conditions.