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Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives  

This chapter discusses carboxylic acids and their derivatives. It notes RCOOH as the general formula for carboxylic acids. Thus, the weak acids neutralize alkalis and react with carbonates. Additionally, acyl chlorides typically react with water, alcohols, ammonia, and amines. In esters, the presence of a concentrated sulfuric acid catalyst forms an equilibrium mixture as the option of leaving the tetrahedral intermediate becomes available. On the other hand, acylation reactions are triggered when an acyl group replaces a hydrogen atom in the nucleophile. The chapter also covers the nucleophilic additional-elimination reactions of acid derivatives. It lists the general formula of esters and acyl chlorides as well.