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Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Carboxylic Acids and Their Derivatives  

This chapter discusses carboxylic acids and their derivatives. It notes RCOOH as the general formula for carboxylic acids. Thus, the weak acids neutralize alkalis and react with carbonates. Additionally, acyl chlorides typically react with water, alcohols, ammonia, and amines. In esters, the presence of a concentrated sulfuric acid catalyst forms an equilibrium mixture as the option of leaving the tetrahedral intermediate becomes available. On the other hand, acylation reactions are triggered when an acyl group replaces a hydrogen atom in the nucleophile. The chapter also covers the nucleophilic additional-elimination reactions of acid derivatives. It lists the general formula of esters and acyl chlorides as well.


Cover Inorganic Chemistry

The Group 1 elements  

This chapter discusses similarities and trends in the properties of the Group 1 elements, also called alkali metals. This group includes lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, caesium (cesium), and francium, which have low densities and are very reactive. The latter, however, is not discussed as it exists naturally only in minute quantities and is highly radioactive. The chapter provides information about these metals’ occurrence and extraction, and uses and compounds, including the atypical properties of lithium. It also discusses the trends in the properties of the simple binary compounds in terms of the ionic model and the nature of complexes and organometallic compounds of the elements.


Cover Bifunctional Compounds

Reactions of dicarbonyl compounds  

This chapter discusses α-dicarbonyl compounds that undergo rearrangement on treatment with alkali, which provides a useful synthetic route to some α-hydroxyacids. It highlights the mechanism that involves the addition of hydroxide to one of the carbonyl groups, followed by the migration of one of the alkyl or aryl substituents to the second carbonyl group. It also covers the contrast ofcontrasts the structure of 2,3-butanedione, which almost entirely exists in the diketo form, and with the structure of 1,2-cyclopentanedione, which exists as the enol. The chapter illustrates how 2,3-butanedione can adopt an anti confirmation conformation with two carbonyl dipoles, while in the diketo form, 1,2-cyclopentanedione is forced to adopt a structure wherein there is a strong repulsive interaction between two carbonyl groups. The chapter alsoIt discussesrefers to β-dicarbonyl compounds, that which exist in equilibrium with their enol tautomers and in some solvents, and their reactions.


Cover Foundations of Inorganic Chemistry

s-Block elements  

This chapter focuses on s-block elements, which are elements with atoms whose last electron occupies an s sublevel orbital. Disregarding hydrogen and helium, all the elements with their outermost electrons in an s sublevel are metals. The elements of Group 1 are known as alkali metals, while those of Group 2 are the alkaline earth metals. Many foods contain compounds of these elements and many of these ‘minerals’ are essential for health; they also have several commercially important uses. Although sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium are quite abundant in nature, they are never found in their free state as the metals are too reactive. The chapter then looks at the structure of the elements, explaining atomization energy; periodic trends down the s-block elements; and the standard electrode potential. It also considers the typical reactions of the s-block elements; the compounds of the alkali and alkaline earth metals; and lithium chloride.


Cover Atomic Spectra

The spectra of the alkali metals  

This chapter focuses on alkali metals. It first explores studies of the alkali metal absorption spectra before turning to the energy levels of many-electron atoms. The energy levels of such atoms will inevitably have a more complicated structure compared to hydrogen, because the quantized energies are now determined not only by the electron–nucleus attraction, but also by the mutual repulsion between electrons. With this in mind, the chapter next turns to electron configuration—in short, the description of which orbitals are occupied by the electrons in the atom—as well as the related Pauli exclusion principle. The spectra of many-electron atoms, penetration and shielding, the spectra of the alkali metals, and the quantum defect are also explored. The chapter also discusses transition energies and the determination of ionization energies. Finally, it takes a look at the laser cooling of sodium atoms.


Cover Essentials of Inorganic Chemistry 1

Acids and bases to Aufbar principle  

This chapter discusses acids and bases and the Aufbau principle. In the Brønsted definition, acids and bases function as proton donors and acceptors in a complementary manner. Compounds which are able to function both as Brønsted acids and bases are described as amphoteric. G.N. Lewis defined acids and bases in terms of electron-pair donation and acceptance. A base in an electron-pair donor and acid is an electron-pair acceptor. The chapter then looks at Lewis basicity trends, before considering actinides, alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, allotropy, the alternation effect, amorphous solids and anhydrous compounds, and aprotic solvent. The Aufbau principle states that the lowest energy (most stable) orbitals are occupied first and in a manner consistent with the Pauli exclusion principle, i.e. with two electrons with opposite spins in each singly degenerate orbital.