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Cover Inorganic Chemistry

The Group 2 elements  

This chapter tackles Group 2 elements. This group includes beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, and radium. The latter four are known as alkaline earth metals, but the term is often applied to the whole of Group 2. The chapter describes the occurrence and extraction, and uses and compounds, of these elements, including the anomalous properties of beryllium. It also provides information about the elements' simple compounds, complexes, and organometallic compounds. The chapter also draws comparisons with the elements of Group 1 and explains how the insolubility of some of the calcium compounds leads to the existence of many inorganic minerals that provide raw materials for the infrastructure of our built environment and provide the building blocks from which many rigid biological structures are formed.


Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Group 2  

This chapter examines the group for alkaline earth metals, also referred to as Group 2 or Group II. The elements in Group 2 are all metals with low electronegativities. Beryllium and radium are the focus across the chapter as they have been less researched due to their toxic compounds or radioactive elements. The physical properties of the Group 2 elements include the increasing atomic radius and ionic radius and decreasing ionization energy and sulfate solubility. Group 2 showcases increasing reactivity with water, acids, and hydroxide solubility. The chapter also looks into the insolubility of barium sulfate and its test for the sulfate ion.


Cover Organometallics and Catalysis

Homogeneous Catalysis with Organometallic Transition Metal Complexes  

This chapter stresses that alkaline earth elements are more electronegative than the alkali metals and that their M–C bonds are more covalent. It emphasizes that alkaline earth compounds are Lewis acids and can coordinate two or more neutral ligands. This Lewis acidity is responsible for their high reactivity. The chapter then presents the bonding characteristics of Beryllium, as the alkaline earth element with the smallest radius. It shows the synthesis of magnesium and the formation of Grignard reagents. It also reviews how the metal–halogen exchange and C–H metallation. Next, it examines the structures of magnesium reagents and the reactions of magnesium reagents. The chapter then analyses the organometallic derivatives of the heavier alkaline earth metals — calcium, strontium, and barium.