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Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry


This chapter focuses on alcohols (ROH) which have at least one hydroxyl group bonded to a carbon atom. Alcohols are known to undergo two reactions similar to the reactions of halogenoalkanes. Additionally, esters are formed through an alcohol's reaction to carboxylic acids. Alcohols also undergo oxidation reactions. The chapter explores the main manufacturing processes for ethanol which are fermentation and the direct hydration of ethene. It also considers the nucleophilic substitution and oxidation reactions of alcohols. The elimination reactions coincide with alcohol being dehydrated through heating with acid. However, conditions depend on the specific alcohol involved in the process as some of the alcohols could produce more than a single product.


Cover Amino Acid and Peptide Synthesis

α-Amino acid synthesis  

This chapter examines proteinogenic α-amino acids that are produced industrially by fermentation methods and chemical synthesis on a vast scale. It highlights the principal application of α-amino acids as food additives and cheap starting materials for laboratory work. It also considers the synthesis of α-amino acids as an active field wherein there is demand for specifically labelled, unnatural, and unusual amino acids. The chapter explores the general methods of synthesis of α-amino acids, including the displacement reactions on α-halo acids, Strecker synthesis, approaches through hydantoins, and via oxazolones. It describes reactions that lead to racemic products and reviews the traditional general approach to the resolution of racemates, which is to derivatize an optically active reagent.


Cover An Introduction to Drug Synthesis

Synthesis of natural products and their analogues  

This chapter notes the synthesis of natural products and their analogues. It recognises recognizes the difficulty of synthesising synthesizing natural compounds, which is related to four key reasons: due to variousthe number and variety of functional groups present in them, the presence of multicyclic or unusual ring systems, the number of asymmetric centres, and the number and variety of substituents. Moreover,While functional groups are vital to synthesis, as their presence in the final product poses a problems. The chapter also discusses different ways to obtain clinically important natural products: such as extraction from a natural sources, harvesting, semi-synthetic methods, and full synthesis. It explores the role of cell cultures and genetic engineering in this context by referencing considering the modification of microbial cells and normal host cells. Additionally, it the chapter explains the how analogues of natural products may be obtained via methods such as biosynthesis, fermentation, synthesis from the natural product itself, fragmenting, synthesis from biosynthetic intermediates, genetically modified cells, and genetically modified enzymes.