1-4 of 4 Results

  • Keywords: fluorine x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Inorganic Chemistry

The Group 17 elements  

This chapter focuses on the Group 17 elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine which are known as the halogens, from the Greek for salt giver. The discussion highlights their systematic features and their compounds with oxygen and discusses the interhalogens. It explores the group's occurrence, recovery, and uses, and looks at the elements' molecular structure and properties. The chapter also tackles reactivity trends as well as pseudohalogens. Then, it examines the properties of fluorine compounds, interhalogens, and halogen oxides. Furthermore, the chapter discusses oxoacids and oxoanions, including the thermodynamic aspects and the trends in rates of oxoanion redox reactions. It also looks at the redox properties of individual oxidation states before finally examining fluorocarbons.

Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

The Halogens  

This chapter discusses the halogens, also known as either Group 17 or Group VII. It also notes the exception of featuring astatine due to its high radioactivity. The physical properties of the halogens range between the melting points, boiling points, atomic radius, ionic radius, electronegativity, ionization energy, and dispersion forces. Additionally, the oxidizing ability of the halogens decreases in positivity, while the reducing ability of the halide ions increases. Fluorine is known to be exceptionally strongly oxidizing. Aqueous halide ions are tested by adding aqueous silver nitrate acidified with dilute nitric acid. An equilibrium is set up when chlorine dissolves in water.

Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Transition Metals 1  

This chapter discusses the halogens, also known as either Group 17 or Group VII. It also notes the exception of featuring astatine due to its high radioactivity. The physical properties of the halogens range between the melting points, boiling points, atomic radius, ionic radius, electronegativity, ionization energy, and dispersion forces. Additionally, the oxidizing ability of the halogens decreases in positivity, while the reducing ability of the halide ions increases. Fluorine is known to be exceptionally strongly oxidizing. Aqueous halide ions are tested by adding aqueous silver nitrate acidified with dilute nitric acid. An equilibrium is set up when chlorine dissolves in water.

Chapter

Cover Organic Synthesis

Properties of organosilicon compounds  

This chapter describes the properties of bonds to silicon. It exhibits the relative strengths of bonds that silicon and carbon form with some other elements, noting that silicon forms stronger bonds than carbon to oxygen and the halogens, and weaker bonds to carbon and hydrogen. The chapter points out that much of organosilicon chemistry is driven by the formation of strong silicon-oxygen or silicon-fluorine bonds at the expense of other weaker bonds. The chapter then moves to demonstrate the relative increases in bond lengths between selected atoms attached to silicon and the corresponding bond to carbon. It then introduces the concept of bond polarization and investigates why silicon is more electropositive than carbon. Next, the chapter elaborates on the nucleophilic substitution at a silicon centre, and the stabilization of beta-carbocations and alpha-carbon-metal bonds.