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Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry


This chapter focuses on thermochemistry. It starts with enthalpy change which is the heat added to a system at constant pressure. The reaction is considered endothermic if heat is taken, while it would be exothermic if heat is given out. As the chapter shows, a calorimeter can be used to measure enthalpy changes. According to Hess's law, the standard enthalpy change for a reaction is independent of the route taken from reactants to products. Atomization enthalpy, on the other hand, is the standard enthalpy change accompanying the formation of a gaseous atom from either a solid or a gas containing molecule. Finally, the chapter explains bond enthalpy, solution enthalpy, and hydration enthalpy as well.


Cover Essentials of Inorganic Chemistry 1

Halogens to hypervalent  

This chapter describes halogens, which are the group 17 elements of the Periodic Table, before explaining Hess’s law. Hess’s law derives from the first law of thermodynamics, which states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, although it may be converted from one form to another. According to Hess’s law, the overall reaction enthalpy is the sum of the reaction enthalpies of the individual reactions into which a reaction may be theoretically divided. The chapter then looks at Hund’s rules, hybridization, and hydration enthalpy. The hydration enthalpy is the standard enthalpy change for the formation of a hydrated ion from its gaseous state. The chapter also considers hydrogen bonds and hypervalent molecules.