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Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Moles  

This chapter explores different types of formulae in chemistry: empirical formula and molecular formula. It defines empirical formula as the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound. Molecular formula can be defined as the whole-number multiple of the empirical formula. The chapter also explains the value of the Avogadro constant, which is the number of atoms per mole. It notes the strategies for solving mass-to-mass calculations, ideal gas models, molar concentration, and molar volume. Molar mass is defined as the mass per mole of a substance. A solution is mostly expressed through mass concentration. This specifies the mass of the solute dissolved per cubic decimetre of the solution.

Chapter

Cover Statistical Thermodynamics

The ideal diatomic gas: the vibrational partition function  

This chapter discusses the ideal diatomic gas in terms of the vibrational partition function. It explains that the value of the vibrational partition function at 300K is imperceptibly different from unity. It states that this approximation can be applied to light molecules. The chapter uses the diatomic SHO model as a reference to classical vibrational frequency. It highlights that vibrational energy levels in diatomic molecules are always non-degenerate. This should be taken into consideration when handling polyatomic species. Additionally, the chapter discusses high-temperature limiting behaviour, the canonical partition function, zero-point energy, heat capacity, and entropy in relation to the vibrational partition function. It also lists other immediate forms of rotational or vibrational motion, such as torsional oscillation, internal rotation, and free rotation.