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Chapter

Cover Applied Ecology

Ecological Indicators  

This chapter explains the concepts behind ecological indicators. Some ecological indicator systems are based on the abundance of a single species. It is said that environmental indicators are founded on the principle of ecological niches and tolerance range. The chapter lists types of ecological indicators, such as surveys and biotic indices, and discusses the theory underpinning environmental indicators. Then, the chapter explicates biological and biodiversity indicators. It also considers the effort of reconstructing historic landscapes known as palaeo-biomonitoring. The chapter highlights the importance of being aware of ecological indicators so that they can be used appropriately and results are correctly interpreted. It also includes an interview with applied ecologist Alice Trevail.

Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Acid–base Equilibrium  

This chapter explains the acid-base equilibrium. This involves the transfer of protons in line with the Brønsted–Lowry theory. A strong acid or strong base is fully ionized in an aqueous solution, while weak acids or bases are only partially ionized in an aqueous solution. Acid-base titrations measure the unknown concentration of one solution by reaction with another standard solution with a familiar concentration. The chapter also notes how indicators are typically water-soluble weak organic acids with varying colours at different pH values. It explores the alternative theory of acid-base reactions proposed by Gilbert Lewis: a Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor, while a Lewis base is an electron-pair donor.

Book

Cover Applied Ecology

Anne E. Goodenough and Adam G. Hart

Applied Ecology shows how an understanding of ecological theory can be used to address the most important issues facing ecologists today. It emphasizes the use of ecological tools and approaches in applied contexts and consists of four parts. Part 1 provides an overview of the subjects covered in this text and introduces applied ecology. Part 2 covers monitoring and looks at ecological surveying, monitoring, and ecological indicators. The next part is about managing and examines ecological impact assessment, remediation ecology, landscape ecology and management, non-native species management, and pest management. The final part is about conserving and includes the principles of conservation, in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, and reintroduction and rewilding.

Chapter

Cover Electrochemistry

Dynamic electrochemical techniques  

This chapter explores dynamic electrochemical techniques. It notes how electroanalytical chemistry relies heavily on voltammetric techniques. Such techniques put the potential at an indicator electrode, which is controlled relative to a fixed reference electrode. Moreover, the chapter explains general concepts in voltammetry such as open circuit potential, three-electrode arrangement, cell resistance, and conductivity. It also looks into the Cottrell equation, electrochemical and chemical reversibility, and mass transport limited current. The chapter then looks into the practical aspects of cyclic voltammetry. It includes the current response to potential steps. It presents the situation where there is an absence of a redox active species and a redox active species absorbed to the surface.