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Chapter

Cover Statistical Thermodynamics

The Boltzmann law  

This chapter looks at the Boltzmann law with respect to the concept of classical thermodynamics. It stresses that thermodynamics is based on three laws of experience. The chapter discusses the Boltzmann factor wherein the unit, energy per unit of temperature, is needed to make the exponent dimensionless. It explores the average basis of matter behaviour. Additionally, certain aspects of the laws of probability are used to establish assumptions and understand the Boltzmann law. The chapter briefly discusses these aspects, including distinct and independent particles, configurations of sharing energy, statistical weights, equal probability of configurations, conservation of number and energy, and maximization subject to constraints.

Chapter

Cover Human Physiology

What is physiology?  

This chapter emphasizes the importance of having a sound knowledge of the structure and function of the body for anyone concerned with medicine or the health sciences. Such a knowledge provides a foundation on which to build strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. It introduces physiology, which is the study of the functions of living matter and is concerned with how an organism performs its varied activities. The success of physiology in explaining how organisms perform their daily tasks is based on the notion that organisms are intricate and exquisite machines whose operation is governed by the laws of physics and chemistry. The chapter outlines how a full knowledge of human anatomy requires the examination of the human body. This is complemented by modern imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can visualize the internal structures of the body in life.

Chapter

Cover Human Physiology

Pulmonary defence mechanisms and common disorders of the respiratory system  

This chapter explains that the respiratory minute volume of 6 l min-1 results in the intake of over 8500 litres of air each day. Even if the concentration of particles were to be only 0.001 per cent, this would include 85 ml of particulate matter. The chapter points out how the respiratory system needs to remove the inert material and inactivate the infectious and allergenic agents. The chapter mentions the three curved bony plates within the nasal cavity, which is the nasal conchae or turbinates which are covered with respiratory epithelium. These disturb the smooth flow of air and make it turbulent by forcing it into narrow passages where it is warmed and moistened.

Chapter

Cover Atkins’ Physical Chemistry

The electric properties of molecules  

This chapter discusses molecular interactions, which are responsible for the formation of condensed phases, and large molecular assemblies, which arise from the electric properties of molecules. It explores how the electronic structures of molecules account for these molecular interactions. It also points out that the nuclei of atoms exert control over the electrons in a molecule, which affects the distribution of the electrons and how it responds to external fields. The chapter examines why electric properties of molecules are responsible for many of the properties of bulk matter. It highlights the small imbalances of charge distributions in molecules and the ability of electron distributions to be distorted that allow molecules to interact with one another and respond to externally applied fields.

Book

Cover Molecular Quantum Mechanics

Peter Atkins and Ronald Friedman

Molecular Quantum Mechanics shows how the subject of quantum mechanics embraces the behaviour of all known forms of matter, including the atoms and molecules from which we, and all living organisms, are composed. The book leads us through this subject, exploring the fundamental physical principles that explain how all matter behaves. The text takes us from the foundations of quantum mechanics, through quantum models of atomic, molecular, and electronic structure, and on to discussions of spectroscopy, and the electronic and magnetic properties of molecules.

Chapter

Cover Physical Chemistry

Thermodynamics  

This chapter explains the system in which the reaction of interest being studied and the surroundings are the rest of the space around the system. It points out that the system that is supplemented by surroundings is called the universe. It also outlines different types of systems that vary according to their transfer of matter and energy and elaborates on how energy can take the form of either heat or work. The transfer of energy as heat arises when there is a difference in temperature. Work is carried out by a reaction when it opposes a force. An example is when gas is produced, and it expands against external pressure. The chapter clarifies how work is done on the system if the atmosphere pushes in on the reaction and compresses any gaseous components.

Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

States of Matter  

This chapter explains the states of matter. It notes how a dipole exists if a positive charge is separated from a negative charge by a distance. The bond's polarity and the shape of the molecule are needed to figure out whether polyatomic molecules have a dipole moment. The molecule's polarizability is in proportion with the induced dipole moment. The chapter also notes that intermolecular forces are forces between molecules that can be classified as dipole-dipole forces, dispersion forces, or hydrogen bonding. The chapter also looks at particles and definitions of solids, liquids, and gases. Finally, it lists the four main types of crystalline solids: simple molecular, giant covalent, ionic, and metallic.

Chapter

Cover Environmental Chemistry

Organic matter in water  

This chapter talks about the occurrence and nature of dissolved organic matter (OM) found in various aquatic systems. It also looks at its influence on environmental processes. The chapter investigates the origins and occurrence of organic matter in water and environmental functions that are related to organic matter, including the properties and interactions of humic material. It also refers to the most analytical methods for measuring OM in water that determine the carbon content, which is an essential element that is present in the aqueous environment as a component of inorganic species in the carbonate family. The chapter highlights the distinction between organic and inorganic forms when measuring the carbon content. It demonstrates various ways of classifying OM in water that determine the relations between the various chemical types of OM and the natural or anthropogenic origins of particular compounds.

Chapter

Cover Environmental Chemistry

Microbiological processes  

This chapter highlights the role that microorganisms play in facilitating environmental processes. It considers their role in organic matter degradation processes in terms of their energy relationships. It discusses the important environmental cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur and looks at the classification systems and properties of microorganisms. It also clarifies that abiotic reactions occur through purely physical or chemical means that can take place in a completely sterile environment while biotic reactions have a biological component. The chapter points out that the biological component of biotic reactions typically involves microorganisms. Biota classified as microorganisms are often very small, with dimensions frequently in the micrometre size range. The chapter highlights that microorganisms, despite their small size, play an essential role in facilitating many chemical reactions that occur in the natural environment, such as the process through which ammonium ion is converted to nitrate in water or soil.

Book

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Michael Clugston, Malcolm Stewart, and Fabrice Birembaut

Making the transition to university chemistry aims to help students make the significant step from school to university, setting them up to be confident and successful in their chemistry studies. The book begins by looking at the basic atomic structure, bonding, and molecular shape. There is a chapter on moles. The text turns to the different states of matter after that. There are also chapters on thermochemistry, chemical equilibrium, and acid-base equilibrium. The middle of the book moves on to look at redox reactions, spontaneous change, entropy, and Gibbs energy. The periodic table is also examined, as are the halogens and transition metals. Hydrocarbons are considered. Towards the end, the text moves on to aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, polymers, and instrumental analysis.

Book

Cover Environmental Chemistry

Gary W. VanLoon and Stephen J. Duffy

Environmental Chemistry describes the chemical principles which underpin the natural processes occurring within and between the air, water, and soil, and explores how they are impacted by humans. It is subdivided into three parts that focus on the chemical composition of the three key environmental systems. Part A looks at the Earth's atmosphere and consists of a number of chapters which consider stratospheric chemistry (ozone), tropospheric chemistry (smog and precipitation), atmospheric aerosols, the chemistry of urban and indoor atmospheres, and the chemistry of the global climate. Part B focuses on the hydrosphere and includes examinations of gases in water, organic matter in water, metals and semi-metals in the hydrosphere, microbiological processes, and water pollution. The final part looks at the terrestrial environment and covers soil properties, solid wastes, toxic organic chemicals, and the future Earth.

Chapter

Cover Introduction to Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure

The wave properties of matter  

This chapter examines the wave properties of matter. Early attempts to extend the quantum ideas to the theory of matter had some limited success, but did not progress very far. Another radical idea was required before a satisfactory theory could be developed. As light has both wave and particle properties, perhaps the same is true of 'ordinary' particles such as electrons. This bold suggestion was made by Louis de Broglie in 1923, and within a few years it had been confirmed experimentally. De Broglie's wave hypothesis formed the basis for Schrödinger's equation, which was found capable of predicting the allowed energy levels in atoms and molecules, and must be regarded as one of the most important mathematical equations of modern science. Before discussing these ideas, the chapter begins by considering the classical mechanics of particles, reviewing some simple concepts that form an essential background to the quantum theory of matter.

Book

Cover Introductory Statistical Mechanics

Roger Bowley and Mariana Sánchez

Introductory Statistical Mechanics explains the ideas and techniques of statistical mechanics—the theory of condensed matter—in a simplean accessible and progressive way. The text starts with the laws of thermodynamics and basic simple ideas of quantum mechanics. The conceptual ideas underlying the subject are explained, and; the mathematical ideas are developed in parallel to give a coherent overall view. The text is illustrated with examples not just from solid-state physics, but also from recent theories of radiation from black holes and recent data on the background radiation from the cosmic background explorer.

Chapter

Cover Marine Ecology: Processes, Systems, and Impacts

Marine Microbial Secondary Production  

This chapter explores how oceanic microbes play a dominant role in cycling of matter and energy in the ocean and introduces the key organism groups in marine microbial food webs. The viruses, bacteria, and archaea that comprise the microbial community are introduced, together with a discussion of their relative abundances and interactions with other organisms. The latest techniques to measure the abundance, diversity, and activity of micro-organisms in the oceans are discussed. The origins, production, and composition of dissolved and particulate organic matter fuelling microbial production and basic metabolic processes are also explored. The ecological context into which these micro-organisms are embedded is developed, leading to a final discussion of the seasonal cycle of production and consumption in temperate waters, as well as the roles of marine microbes in the global carbon cycle and climate system.

Chapter

Cover Plants, Genes & Agriculture

Soil Ecosystems,Plant Nutrition, and Nutrient Cycling  

Eric M. Engstrom

This chapter studies soil ecosystems, plant nutrition, and nutrient cycling. Soils are complex ecosystems where changes in one soil variable are likely to affect multiple other variables, often in ways that are difficult to predict accurately. Chemical elements cycle within the ecosystem. Chemical transformations occur continuously, fueled by biological and physical processes. Agricultural systems are inherently different from natural ecosystems in that soil nutrients are regularly removed from agricultural systems and must be replaced. In addition, agricultural ecosystems, which often encompass only one crop, have almost no aboveground biodiversity. The chapter then looks at the roles of soil nutrients, soil organic matter, and plant roots. It also considers plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, before discussing mycorrhizae.

Chapter

Cover Inorganic Spectroscopic Methods

Introduction  

This introductory chapter provides an overview of spectroscopy, which can be defined as the study of the interaction between radiation and matter. Since the spectroscopic techniques described in this book, with the exception of mass spectrometry, involve such an interaction, it begins by considering electromagnetic radiation and some of its properties. To observe a spectrum, the compound must interact either with the electric or magnetic component of the applied radiation. The chapter then explains molecular energy levels, population distributions, selection rules, and time-scales. It also details the basic components of a scanning spectrometer. It is more common these days for an alternative method to be used which essentially allows all the data for the complete spectrum to be recorded very rapidly. Such techniques use Fourier transform methods to mathematically de-convolute individual absorptions at particular energies (or frequencies) from data containing all such energies which are recorded as an interference pattern.

Chapter

Cover Workbook in Inorganic Chemistry

Atomic structure  

Matthew Almond, Mark Spillman, and Elizabeth Page

Edited by Elizabeth Page

This chapter discusses topics which are related to atomic structure, starting with electromagnetic waves and matter. Chemists frequently make use of spectroscopic techniques to study materials. Such techniques rely on the interaction between electromagnetic waves and matter. As well as its speed, an electromagnetic wave is also described by its wavelength and its frequency. For mostly historical reasons, spectroscopists also frequently make use of another related quantity known as the wavenumber. The chapter then considers Albert Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, which is observed when electromagnetic radiation of a sufficiently high energy strikes a metal surface. It also looks at hydrogenic emission spectra and the Rydberg equation; quantum numbers and atomic orbitals; and multi-electron atoms and the periodic table.

Chapter

Cover Chemistry for the Biosciences

Molecular interactions: holding it all together  

This chapter evaluates non-covalent interactions, which operate between parts of one molecule (intramolecular) or between separate molecules (intermolecular), and which are primarily electrostatic in nature, and operate over only short distances. The chapter also looks at polarization, the process by which electrons are unevenly distributed within a molecule, before explaining the van der Waals interaction—the overall interaction between two species once both attractive and repulsive interactions are taken into account. The chapter then considers dispersion forces, permanent dipolar interactions, induced dipolar interactions, and steric repulsion. It studies other biologically essential interactions, including hydrogen bonds, ionic forces, and hydrophobic forces. Finally, the chapter examines how molecular interactions influence water solubility, before outlining the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. It also identifies the transitions between phases, including melting, vaporization, condensation, solidification, sublimation, and deposition.