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Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

The Halogens  

This chapter discusses the halogens, also known as either Group 17 or Group VII. It also notes the exception of featuring astatine due to its high radioactivity. The physical properties of the halogens range between the melting points, boiling points, atomic radius, ionic radius, electronegativity, ionization energy, and dispersion forces. Additionally, the oxidizing ability of the halogens decreases in positivity, while the reducing ability of the halide ions increases. Fluorine is known to be exceptionally strongly oxidizing. Aqueous halide ions are tested by adding aqueous silver nitrate acidified with dilute nitric acid. An equilibrium is set up when chlorine dissolves in water.

Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Transition Metals 1  

This chapter discusses the halogens, also known as either Group 17 or Group VII. It also notes the exception of featuring astatine due to its high radioactivity. The physical properties of the halogens range between the melting points, boiling points, atomic radius, ionic radius, electronegativity, ionization energy, and dispersion forces. Additionally, the oxidizing ability of the halogens decreases in positivity, while the reducing ability of the halide ions increases. Fluorine is known to be exceptionally strongly oxidizing. Aqueous halide ions are tested by adding aqueous silver nitrate acidified with dilute nitric acid. An equilibrium is set up when chlorine dissolves in water.

Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Trends Across the Periodic Table  

This chapter explores trends across the periodic table. The physical trends across the periodic table include metal, non-metal, metalloids, and electrical conductivity. The chemical trends across the periodic table involve the oxidation state as elements shift drastically due to their reaction to oxygen. Phosphorus, sulfur, and chloride for a variety of oxides. The chapter also tackles the melting points, ionization energies, and atomic radii across periods 2 and 3 of the periodic table. The melting point of a metallic element is dependent on the strength of the metallic bonding and the attraction between metal ions and a delocalized sea of electrons.