1-5 of 5 Results

  • Keywords: oxygen metabolism x
Clear all

Chapter

Cover Human Physiology

Introduction to the cardiovascular system  

This chapter considers the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the cells and the environment of unicellular organisms and simple animals. Examples include sponges. These can be accomplished by simple diffusion across the cell membranes. The chapter cites diffusion as a random process in three dimensions, the time required for equilibration increases rapidly with increasing distance. In more complex animals, diffusion of nutrients by itself would not suffice to permit adequate exchange of nutrients and waste products, as most cells are separated from the external environment by a considerable distance. The chapter describes the organization of the circulation, its gross anatomy, the structure of the blood vessels, and their innervation. One of the primary functions of the circulatory system is to promote the carriage of oxygen and nutrients to the cells and remove the products of metabolism.

Chapter

Cover Foundations of Chemical Biology

From structure to metabolic function: the globins  

This chapter uses globins as an example to introduce the role of proteins in metabolism. It explains that globins are responsible for transporting oxygen in many multicellular organisms, collecting oxygen from the atmosphere to be delivered to the cells. It also explains the molecular mechanism by which the process of oxygen transport takes place, which is one of the best understood examples of the relationship between a structure of a protein and its function. The chapter explores the structures of myoglobin and haemoglobin and examines their physiological roles. It provides specific examples of how the basic principles of protein structure can be used to understand the complex functions of large macromolecules..

Chapter

Cover Biochemistry

Aerobic Metabolism II: Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation  

This chapter analyses how the aerobic lifestyle depends on the large quantities of energy made possible by oxygen, which is also required directly or indirectly for 1000 biochemical reactions that cannot occur under anaerobic conditions. It cites research efforts which have revealed that aerobic organisms have evolved an array of mechanisms that provide protection from the toxic by-products of oxygen metabolism. Many enzymes and antioxidant molecules prevent most oxidative cell damage. The chapter describes oxygen metabolites that are now known to contribute to an array of human disorders that include cancer and heart and neurological diseases. Oxygen has several properties that, when combined, have made possible a highly favourable mechanism for extracting energy from organic molecules.

Book

Cover Animal Physiology

Richard W. Hill, Daniel J. Cavanaugh, and Margaret Anderson

Animal Physiology is composed of six parts. Part I looks at the fundamentals of physiology including animal, environment, molecules, cells, genomics, proteomics, physiological development, and transport of solids and water. Part II covers food, energy, and temperature. It looks at topics such as nutrition, feeding, digestion, energy metabolism, aerobic and anaerobic forms of metabolism, thermal relations, and food. The next part looks at integrating systems: neurons, synapses, sensory processes, nervous system organization, biological clocks, endocrine and neuroendocrine physiology, reproduction, and integrating systems in action. The next part covers movement and muscle. Part V is about oxygen, carbon dioxide, and internal transport. The final part of the book looks into water, salts, and excretion.

Chapter

Cover Animal Physiology

Diving by Marine Mammals  

Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, and Internal Transport AT WORK

This chapter looks into the science of diving by marine mammals by considering the interplay between oxygen, carbon dioxide, and internal transport. Advances in technology have provided new options for getting time and depth information on the swimming of the Weddell seal. The size of a diving mammal's total O2 store is a key determinant of how long the animal can stay submerged. Moreover, circulation holds a special place in the chronicles of diving physiology because the very first physiological observations on diving were measures of heart rates. The chapter also looks into the notion of metabolism during dives and the aetiology of decompression sickness.