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Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Hydrocarbons: Alkenes  

This chapter focuses on alkenes, which are known to be unsaturated hydrocarbons with a carbon-carbon double bond. Ethene is known to be the simplest alkene, this is closely followed by propane. Alkenes undergo electrophilic addition reactions. This involves the addition of hydrogen halides, acidified water, and halogens. The chapter explains the Markovnikov's rule wherein the alkene and adduct are unsymmetrical. This is something which two isomers could form. Markovnikov's rule refers to the more stable carbocation forms carrying a positive charge with three bonds. The chapter also explicates the addition of a neutral molecule to ethene which is largely similar to the electrophilic addition of molecules under acidic conditions.

Chapter

Cover Organic Chemistry

Conformational analysis  

This chapter examines conformational analysis. Even though no two molecules have exactly the same shape at any one time, they are still all the same chemical compound—they have all the same atoms attached in the same way. The different shapes of molecules of the same compound are called different conformations. To get from one conformation to another, we can rotate about as many single bonds as we like. The one thing we cannot do is to break any bonds. Some pairs of structures can only be interconverted by breaking a bond. This means that they have different configurations—configurations can be interconverted only by breaking bonds. The chapter then considers the conformations of ethane, propane, and butane. It also looks at cyclohexane.