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Book

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Michael Clugston, Malcolm Stewart, and Fabrice Birembaut

Making the transition to university chemistry aims to help students make the significant step from school to university, setting them up to be confident and successful in their chemistry studies. The book begins by looking at the basic atomic structure, bonding, and molecular shape. There is a chapter on moles. The text turns to the different states of matter after that. There are also chapters on thermochemistry, chemical equilibrium, and acid-base equilibrium. The middle of the book moves on to look at redox reactions, spontaneous change, entropy, and Gibbs energy. The periodic table is also examined, as are the halogens and transition metals. Hydrocarbons are considered. Towards the end, the text moves on to aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, polymers, and instrumental analysis.

Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Atomic Structure  

This chapter looks at the atomic structure and shows that atoms are bonded together to form compounds. The chapter atoms, nucleus, electron, proton, and neutron by referring to the nuclear model. A mass spectrometer can be used to measure the masses of atoms. Electronic structures are often called electronic configurations. The Schrödinger equation can be used to explain arising subshells in the configuration and the electron density. The electron density is defined as the probability of finding a particular electron. The chapter also shows how the current numbering system of the periodic table is based on the Schrödinger equation. The chapter then tackles the ionization energy. This refers to the minimum energy required to remove an electron from an isolated gas atom.