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Chapter

Cover Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Carbohydrates and Carbohydrate Metabolism  

Alex White and Helen Burrell

This chapter focuses on carbohydrates, which are molecules composed almost exclusively of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrate monomers are called monosaccharides and are found throughout nature. The chapter explains how carbohydrates are synthesized in plants during the process of photosynthesis, with their carbon atoms being obtained from atmospheric carbon dioxide. The chapter considers carbohydrates as the main fuel source in human bodies and they are divided into two groups: simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. Simple sugars like glucose are metabolized directly via glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, whereas complex carbohydrates like starch and glycogen are first broken down into simple sugars.

Chapter

Cover Drug Design and Development

Other Drug Targets  

This chapter focuses on other biomolecules which act as drug targets such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins other than those dealt with in the previous chapters. The majority of drugs which target lipids do so by interfering with the lipid structure of cell membranes, either human or bacterial. They do so in a variety of ways, although all disrupt the cell membrane in some respect. Meanwhile, in addition to antibacterial and antiviral activity, drugs which target these carbohydrate molecules may also be of use in cancer and autoimmune diseases, which often show changes in cell surface recognition carbohydrates. The chapter then considers non-enzymatic proteins as drug targets.