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Chapter

Cover The Cell

Genes and Genomes  

This chapter considers DNA as a genetic material that provides a blueprint to direct all cellular activities and specifies the developmental plan of multicellular organisms. It points out how an understanding of gene structure and function is fundamental to an appreciation of the molecular biology of cells. It also details the development of gene cloning, which enabled scientists to dissect complex eukaryotic genomes and probe the functions of eukaryotic genes. The chapter describes the advances in DNA sequencing that led to knowing the complete genome sequences of thousands of bacteria, of yeast, and of many species of plants, animals, and humans. It focuses on the organization of eukaryotic genes and the types of sequences in the genomes of higher eukaryotes, which play important roles in gene regulation rather than encoding proteins.

Chapter

Cover The Cell

Genomics, Proteomics, and Systems Biology  

This chapter considers the development of new technologies and their impact on understanding the molecular biology of cells. It describes complete genome sequences of a wide variety of organisms that provide a wealth of information that forms a new framework for studies of cell and molecular biology and opens new possibilities in medical practice. It also shows how the sequences of complete genomes are obtained and undertake large-scale analyses of all RNAs and proteins expressed in individual cells. The chapter reviews global experimental approaches that form the basis of the new field of systems biology, which seeks a quantitative understanding of the integrated behavior of complex biological systems. It outlines the basic approaches used in next-generation sequencing and global methods used to study gene expression.

Chapter

Cover The Cell

Fundamentals of Molecular Biology  

This chapter begins with a review of the major discoveries that established the fundamental principles of molecular biology and enabled the development of recombinant DNA technology. It talks about antibodies, which have been applied to an ever-increasing array of techniques. It also explores techniques that have been and continue to be critical to ongoing progress in contemporary cell biology research. The chapter demonstrates the impact of the application of recombinant DNA technology, such as allowing individual eukaryotic genes to be isolated and characterized in detail. It shows how the application of recombinant DNA technology determines the complete sequences of cellular genomes and the manipulation of cellular genomes with striking precision.