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Chapter

Cover Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Cells and viruses  

This chapter offers a broad survey of the structures and properties of cells and viruses, providing a biological background for the more detailed mechanisms of cell biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. It explains that cells are the units of living systems, wherein each cell is surrounded by a lipid membrane and has a DNA genome. The two main classes of cellular organism are prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including archaea that are a third class of organism that can live in unusual environments. The chapter examines the large numbers of ribosomes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, which are large complex structures of RNA and proteins found in the cytosol. The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells can be defined as the content of the cell excluding the nucleus, while the cytosol refers to the soluble constituents of the cytoplasm from which membrane-bounded organelles have been removed.

Book

Cover Thrive in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Lynne S. Cox, David A. Harris, and Catherine J. Pears

Thrive in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology starts off by looking at molecules. It then considers cellular components and enzymes. Next, it moves on to genome stability and gene expression. The next chapter after that is about mammalian metabolic pathways. Integration in mammalian metabolism is considered next. Finally, the text looks in detail at microbial and plant metabolism. It ends with an examination of biochemical techniques.

Chapter

Cover Thrive in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Biochemical techniques  

This chapter reviews the different biochemical techniques. The experimental procedures by which biochemical information is obtained include molecular biological, immunological, biochemical, and biophysical techniques. Molecular biology techniques involve the analysis and manipulation of DNA, RNA, and protein. They include cloning genes/complementary DNAs; genomics/genome sequencing; gene therapy; and genetically modified (GM) crops. The chapter then looks at protein purification and analysis. It also considers immunological techniques, which exploit the high specificity and affinity of antibodies for their cognate antigen. They can be used simply to analyse the presence of a protein, examine post-translational modifications, probe protein–protein interactions, and interactions of protein with other macromolecules. Finally, the chapter studies biophysical techniques, which allow analysis of the structure and physical properties of biochemical macromolecules.