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Book

Cover Physical Chemistry: Quanta, Matter, and Change

Peter Atkins, Julio de Paula, and Ronald Friedman

Physical Chemistry starts off by looking at the foundations of the subject and provides the reader with some mathematical background. It then looks at quantum mechanics, taking into consideration the quantum mechanics of motion, molecular structure, and molecular symmetry. It then considers Fourier transforms, molecular spectroscopy, magnetic resonance, statistical thermodynamics, probability theory, the first law of thermodynamics, and multivariate calculus. The final part of the book examines physical equilibria, chemical equilibria, molecular motion, chemical kinetics, reaction dynamics, and processes in fluid systems and solid states.

Chapter

Cover Atkins’ Physical Chemistry

Motion in liquids  

This chapter shows how molecular motion in liquids from is different to that that in gases on account of the presence of significant intermolecular interactions and the much higher density typical of a liquid. It explores the electrical resistance of electrolyte solutions and analyses it in terms of the response of the ions to an applied electric field. It discusses how solute molecules and ions move through liquid environments. The chapter demonstrates how ions reach a terminal velocity when the electrical force on them is balanced by the drag due to the viscosity of the solvent. It mentions inelastic neutron scattering, in which the energy neutrons collect or discard as they pass through a sample is interpreted in terms of the motion of its molecules.