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Book

Cover Inorganic Chemistry

Mark Weller, Jonathan Rourke, Tina Overton, and Fraser Armstrong

Inorganic Chemistry consists of three parts. Part 1 presents some foundations including atomic structure, molecular structure and bonding, molecular symmetry, acids and bases, oxidation and reduction, and coordination compounds. The second part of the book is about the elements and their compounds. This part looks at periodic trends, hydrogen, various elements in different groups, the d-block elements, metal complexes, and f-block elements. The final part is about advances and applications. This last part includes discussions on materials chemistry, nanomaterials, green chemistry, biological inorganic chemistry, and inorganic chemistry in medicine.

Chapter

Cover Foundations of Inorganic Chemistry

Elements and periodicity  

This chapter discusses the elements and the periodic table. Matter is made up from very small particles called atoms. To date, 109 different atom types are known and named, and each type is referred to as an element. The chapter begins by describing the atomic structure. An atom consists of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. While all atoms of one element possess the same number of protons, the nuclei of atoms of any one element may contain different numbers of neutrons. Conceptually, one of the simplest models of atomic structure is the Bohr model. The chapter then focuses on the periodic table, which was originally constructed as a way to organize the chemical elements into groups of elements with related chemical properties, before explaining periodicity. One of the clearest classifications for the elements is into metals and non-metals.

Chapter

Cover Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences

Atomic orbitals  

This chapter takes a look at the atomic orbital, which is a one-electron wavefunction describing the spatial distribution of an electron in an atom. Atomic orbitals are used throughout chemistry in discussions of the electronic structure of atoms in general and in discussions of molecular electronic structure. This chapter extends the discussion of atomic structure to include the effect of nuclear charge by considering one-electron ions with higher atomic numbers. It shows how hydrogenic atoms are important because the Schrödinger equation can be solved for them. Furthermore, the concepts learned from a study of hydrogenic atoms can be used to describe the structures of many-electron atoms and of molecules too. To that end the chapter takes a look at the energy levels of hydrogenic atoms as well as the wavefunctions of hydrogenic atoms.

Chapter

Cover Periodicity and the s- and p-Block Elements

Atomic structure and the form of the periodic table  

This chapter provides an overview of ideas on atomic structure which lead to an understanding of why the periodic table has the form that it does. The periodic table was initially constructed based on a consideration of atomic weight (nowadays referred to as relative atomic mass) and periodic trends in the chemical behaviour of the elements. It was therefore arrived at empirically, and only later were the underlying reasons for its structure understood with the development of quantum theory in the early twentieth century. The chapter then looks at the Schrödinger wave equation, which is used to describe the behaviour or properties of electrons in atoms. It also considers wavefunctions for the hydrogen atom; the energies of orbitals; and polyelectronic atoms. Ultimately, the chapter explains some of the key features of the periodic table, particularly in terms of the relative positions of the s-, p-, and d-blocks.

Chapter

Cover Chemistry for the Biosciences

Atoms: the foundations of life  

This chapter discusses atoms and their components, looking at protons, electrons, and neutrons. It begins by defining chemical elements, and studies the periodic table, which displays all the known chemical elements in order of ascending atomic number. Periodicity is the gradual change in chemical property from element to element as one moves across a period, and the similarity of chemical and physical properties exhibited by elements within the same group. The chapter then explores atomic composition and structure, distinguishing between the Bohr model and the quantum mechanical model of atomic structure. The chapter discusses ions, which are atoms that have either gained or lost one or more electrons, and the ionization energy, which describes the amount of energy required to remove an electron from an atom. It also explains how isotopes are atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons. Finally, the chapter considers the electronic configuration of atoms, valence shells and valence electrons, and electron excitation.

Book

Cover Foundations of Inorganic Chemistry

Mark J. Winter and John E. Andrew

Foundations of Inorganic Chemistry starts with an introductory section which covers atomic structure and bonding. The second section is about the periodic table. The third section covers s- and p-block elements. This section examines group trends in physical and chemical properties, periodic and group trends, acids, bases, pH, oxides, chlorides, sulphates, nitrates, phosphates, and carbonates. The final section is about d-block elements. This section includes discussion on complexes, ligands, EDTA titration, redox processes, metal complexes, and catalysis.

Book

Cover Periodicity and the s- and p-Block Elements
Periodicity and the s- and p-block elements begins by looking at atomic structure and the periodic table. Then chapters look at periodicity in the atomic properties of the elements, periodicity in the properties of the elements, and general features of p-block element compounds. The text moves on to examine compounds of the p-block elements, acids and bases, structure, and theories and models.

Chapter

Cover Inorganic Chemistry

Atomic structure  

This chapter provides foundations for an explanation of the trends in the physical and chemical properties of all inorganic compounds. The chapter begins with a discussion on the origin of matter in the solar system and then considers the development of understanding of atomic structure and the behaviour of electrons in atoms. It reviews the structures and properties of atoms, acknowledging that these are crucial in understanding the behaviour of molecules and solids. The chapter also qualitatively introduces quantum theory and uses the results to rationalize properties such as atomic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity.

Book

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Michael Clugston, Malcolm Stewart, and Fabrice Birembaut

Making the transition to university chemistry aims to help students make the significant step from school to university, setting them up to be confident and successful in their chemistry studies. The book begins by looking at the basic atomic structure, bonding, and molecular shape. There is a chapter on moles. The text turns to the different states of matter after that. There are also chapters on thermochemistry, chemical equilibrium, and acid-base equilibrium. The middle of the book moves on to look at redox reactions, spontaneous change, entropy, and Gibbs energy. The periodic table is also examined, as are the halogens and transition metals. Hydrocarbons are considered. Towards the end, the text moves on to aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, polymers, and instrumental analysis.

Chapter

Cover Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Atomic Structure  

This chapter looks at the atomic structure and shows that atoms are bonded together to form compounds. The chapter atoms, nucleus, electron, proton, and neutron by referring to the nuclear model. A mass spectrometer can be used to measure the masses of atoms. Electronic structures are often called electronic configurations. The Schrödinger equation can be used to explain arising subshells in the configuration and the electron density. The electron density is defined as the probability of finding a particular electron. The chapter also shows how the current numbering system of the periodic table is based on the Schrödinger equation. The chapter then tackles the ionization energy. This refers to the minimum energy required to remove an electron from an isolated gas atom.

Book

Cover Workbook in Inorganic Chemistry

Matthew Almond and Mark Spillman

Edited by Elizabeth Page and Elizabeth Page

Workbook in Inorganic Chemistry firstly concentrates on topics related to atomic structure. The text then moves on to examine molecular orbitals and structure. Following this is a chapter on periodicity and the chemistry of the s-block and p-block, which are explained in great detail. After this, the text moves on to look at solids. Finally, there is a chapter on the coordination complexes of the d-block metals.

Book

Cover Chemical Bonding
Chemical Bonding starts off with a chapter on simple bonding schemes. The next chapter considers atomic structure. The third chapter looks at diatomic molecules. There is also a chapter on molecular geometry. The last two chapters cover hybrid orbital bonding and the molecular orbital approach and polyatomic molecules.

Book

Cover Introduction to Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure
Introduction to Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure envelops the basic concepts needed as background for this topic, and discusses atomic structure but not molecular applications. The first two chapters are concerned with the basic ideas and problems of wave-particle duality, the nature of wavefunction, and its statistical interpretation. Chapter 3 discusses some important applications of Schrödinger's equation to chemically relevant situations. Chapters 4 and 5 deal respectively with the hydrogen atom, and with the structure of many-electron atoms and the periodic table of elements. The emphasis throughout is on the physical concepts and their concrete application.

Chapter

Cover Workbook in Inorganic Chemistry

Atomic structure  

Matthew Almond, Mark Spillman, and Elizabeth Page

Edited by Elizabeth Page

This chapter discusses topics which are related to atomic structure, starting with electromagnetic waves and matter. Chemists frequently make use of spectroscopic techniques to study materials. Such techniques rely on the interaction between electromagnetic waves and matter. As well as its speed, an electromagnetic wave is also described by its wavelength and its frequency. For mostly historical reasons, spectroscopists also frequently make use of another related quantity known as the wavenumber. The chapter then considers Albert Einstein's explanation of the photoelectric effect, which is observed when electromagnetic radiation of a sufficiently high energy strikes a metal surface. It also looks at hydrogenic emission spectra and the Rydberg equation; quantum numbers and atomic orbitals; and multi-electron atoms and the periodic table.

Chapter

Cover Tools and Techniques in Biomolecular Science

Structural analysis of proteins: X-ray crystallography1, NMR2, AFM3, and CD spectroscopy4  

Thomas Edwards1, Arwen Pearson1, Gary Thompson2, Arnout Kalverda2, Oliver Farrance3, David Brockwell3, and Gareth Morgan4

This chapter gives an overview of different techniques used to study the structure of proteins. These techniques can provide information such as size, conformation, protein-folding, interactions with other molecules, and changes in structure in response to changing environmental conditions. The chapter covers discussions on X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It also describes circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, a technique used to study the secondary structure content of proteins, and how this changes when a protein unfolds or binds to another molecule. The chapter explains the basic principles behind these techniques and the types of information that each of these can provide.

Chapter

Cover Chemical Bonding

Atomic structure  

This chapter examines the atomic structure. The concept of atoms dates back over 2000 years, while modern concepts of atomic theory date back 250 years. The simplest model for atomic structure based on Ernest Rutherford's conclusions is the Bohr model, a model put forward by the Danish physicist Niels Bohr in 1913. The Bohr model of atomic structure consists of electrons (negatively charged) revolving around the nucleus (positively charged) at certain (quantized) fixed distances in a set of orbits. Erwin Schrödinger then emphasized the wave nature of electrons using wave mechanics. The wave equation solutions for electrons in atoms require the quantum numbers n (principal quantum number), l (azimuthal or angular momentum quantum number), and ml (magnetic quantum number). A fourth quantum number, ms , describes spin. The chapter then looks at the electronic structure and the periodic table.

Chapter

Cover Chemical Bonding

The molecular orbital approach and polyatomic molecules  

This chapter addresses the molecular orbital approach and polyatomic molecules. The molecular orbital approach involves the identification of groups of orbitals whose symmetries allow overlap to form molecular orbitals. Molecular orbitals may be bonding, antibonding, or non-bonding relative to their component atomic orbitals. Molecular orbitals may hold one or two electrons. Moreover, molecular orbitals may link 1 to n atoms in a molecule, where n is the number of atoms in the molecule. Molecular orbital analysis and Lewis structures may lead to lone pairs but the nature of these lone pairs may differ. The chapter then looks at triatomic molecules EX2 and tetraatomic molecules EX3.