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Book

Cover Carbohydrate Chemistry

Benjamin G. Davis and Antony J. Fairbanks

Carbohydrate Chemistry argues that carbohydrates are a vital part not only of metabolism, but are implicated as key coding molecules in a host of subtle biological events. The exploration of the role and the manipulation of this wonderful class of molecules is an exciting and ever-changing field. This text aims to remove some of the mystery that often surrounds carbohydrate chemistry, by highlighting and summarizing some of the central principles and ideas and by illustrating them with both classical and state-of-the-art examples.

Chapter

Cover Human Nutrition

Carbohydrate metabolism  

John M. Brameld, Tim Parr, and David A. Bender

This chapter tackles the function of carbohydrate metabolism. Carbohydrates are not essential nutrients since there is no absolute requirement for a dietary intake. However, a very low carbohydrate diet results in chronically increased production and plasma concentrations of the ketone bodies (ketosis) and the absence of glycogen stores since carbohydrate mainly provides metabolic fuel to all tissues. The chapter then explains the main role of dietary carbohydrates as a metabolic fuel, such as affecting satiety, insulin secretion, and glucose homeostasis. It then considers the pathways of carbohydrate metabolism and its regulation before considering the role of glycogen as a carbohydrate reserve.

Chapter

Cover Essentials of Human Nutrition

Carbohydrates  

Andrew Reynolds and Jim Mann

This chapter discusses carbohydrates, which are the most important source of food energy in the world. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate worldwide are cereal grains (primarily rice, wheat, and maize), with refined sugar, root crops (potatoes, cassava, yams, sweet potatoes, and taro), pulses, vegetables, fruit, and milk products contributing less to overall energy intake. Carbohydrate-containing foods, with the exception of sugar, contribute important amounts of protein, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, sterols, and antioxidants to diet. The chapter then looks at the measurement of dietary carbohydrates; the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates; and carbohydrate metabolism. It also considers the relationship between carbohydrates and postprandial glycaemia, gut disorders, and non-communicable disease. Finally, the chapter examines energy values and recommended intakes of carbohydrates.

Book

Cover Biochemistry

Richard Bowater, Laura Bowater, and Tom Husband

Biochemistry introduces this topic with an examination of carbohydrates, asking why we need them in our lives. It then looks at the building blocks of a cell, namely, lipids and proteins. Nucleotides and nucleic acids are the next topic to be covered. The text moves on to consider metabolism. It asks what it means and how energy is transformed. Other questions asked include: how is a metabolic balance maintained? How can we solve the problems of the future with natural products? Finally, the text looks at bioenergy and the environment.

Book

Cover Biochemistry
Biochemistry begins with an introduction to the topic. Discussions covered include living cells, the importance of water to life, energy, and amino acids, peptides, and proteins. The book also contains chapters on carbohydrates, carbohydrate metabolism, aerobic metabolism, and lipids and membranes. The text goes on to examine photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, nucleic acids, and genes. Finally, it looks at protein synthesis.

Chapter

Cover Human Nutrition

Fat metabolism  

Philip C. Calder and Parveen Yaqoob

This chapter focuses on the notion and main features of fat metabolism. Fat is a major contributor to total energy intakes in most Western diets, and all fat sources contain mixtures of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fat plays diverse roles in human nutrition, such as a source of energy, both for immediate utilization by the body and in laying down a storage depot. The chapter explains that dietary fat acts as a vehicle for the ingestion and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. It then considers the relationship between fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism and the main regulatory features of fat metabolism.

Chapter

Cover The Biochemical Basis of Sports Performance

Middle-distance events  

This chapter evaluates the relative contributions to energy metabolism from phosphocreatine breakdown, anaerobic glycolysis, and carbohydrate oxidation during middle-distance running. Oxidative metabolism makes the major contribution to energy production when the exercise duration exceeds about one to two minutes. However, at least for exercise intensities that can be sustained for less than about ten minutes, the rate at which energy must be supplied to the working muscles exceeds the maximum rate of the oxidative processes. The chapter uses the example of the middle-distance track runner to describe the metabolic processes occurring and to consider the causes of fatigue and potential limitations to performance in events taking place over this time scale. The chapter then looks at the glycolytic pathway and the regulation of glycolysis.

Chapter

Cover Medical Microbiology

Identification tests  

John Perry

This chapter examines biochemical reactions that allow for differentiation of clinically important bacteria, looking at the application of identification tests. Bacterial identification is traditionally based on a presumptive assignment to a genus or species based on morphological and cultural characteristics, followed by confirmation using biochemical tests. The chapter explains how bacterial hydrolases can be detected and provides examples of specific hydrolases produced by pathogens. It demonstrates how carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism by bacteria can be exploited in bacterial identification, before showing how susceptibility tests can assist microbial identification. The chapter then discusses the principles of MALDI-TOF and immunological tests for bacterial identification, along with their benefits to diagnosis of infection. It also considers the pitfalls and quality issues with biochemical identification tests.

Chapter

Cover The Biochemical Basis of Sports Performance

The sprinter  

This chapter examines anaerobic metabolism. The sprinter has to sustain a very high-power output over a relatively short period of time. As the intramuscular supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is sufficient to last only about two seconds, there is a pressing need to resynthesize ATP extremely quickly, and this is achieved by the breakdown of intramuscular stores of phosphocreatine and the rapid activation of glycolysis. Both of these processes occur without the utilization of oxygen; that is, they are anaerobic means of regenerating ATP. However, sprinting is not entirely anaerobic. There is a contribution of carbohydrate oxidation to ATP resynthesis during sprinting that increases as the duration and distance of the sprint increases. The chapter then describes the concept of the cellular energy charge and explains why there is a loss of adenine nucleotides during very high-intensity exercise.