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Chapter

Cover Organs, Systems, and Surgery

A Brief History of Surgery  

This chapter provides a brief history of surgery, and highlights the importance of understanding the anatomy and physiology of the human body. It details how technological advances have affected the development of surgery. In early human history, surgery was crude and possibly performed for magico-religious reasons. As anatomical knowledge advanced, surgeons were able to learn how they could safely operate on various parts of the body. The chapter explains that the horrifying casualties of the First and Second World Wars resulted in significant improvements in trauma surgery and reconstructive surgery. Moreover, post-war innovations allowed more adventurous surgical procedures and higher survival rates from more routine procedures.

Chapter

Cover Organs, Systems, and Surgery

From Food to Faeces  

This chapter details the processes of digestion, which is handled using a complex series of feedback loops. It explains that the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) is a formidably complicated collection of interdependent organs. The organs of the gastrointestinal tract work from the mouth to the anus to break down and absorb the nutrients found in consumed food. Thus, any diseases affecting any part of the GI tract can have significant effects on people's nutritional state. The chapter explains that surgery can provide treatment for the disease, but the procedure might trigger other complications, such as colostomies or shortened bowels.

Chapter

Cover Organs, Systems, and Surgery

A Breath of Fresh Air  

This chapter explores the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. It examines the mechanics of ventilation while also elaborating on the division of the respiratory system into upper and lower respiratory tracts. Both the upper and lower respiratory tract are very vulnerable to smoking-related damage, as they directly receive inhaled smoke from cigarettes and other tobacco products. The chapter cites how cancers, the best-known and most feared diseases which affect the gas exchange system, can occur at any level of the respiratory tract. It then explains how surgery aims to improve quality of life through tonsillectomies or can be life-saving, when it comes to a lung transplant.

Book

Cover Organs, Systems, and Surgery

William Fullick and James Fullick

Organs, Systems, and Surgery covers the anatomy and physiology of the key organ systems in the human body. It provides an overview of the anatomical details and physiological principles of the organ systems of the body and discusses the pathophysiology of common diseases that can affect them. It also considers how surgical approaches can be used to manage commonly presenting diseases of these systems. In addition, the primer explores surgery and anaesthesia both in an historical and contemporary context, examining how surgical and anaesthetic approaches have advanced over the centuries and how they continue to evolve to make surgery safer and more effective.

Chapter

Cover Cancer Biology and Treatment

Cancer Treatment and Clinical Management  

This chapter presents an overview of cancer prognosis and current treatments such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. It begins by looking at cancer prevention. Predicting the expected outcome for patients diagnosed with cancer is a critical step in their management; however, prognostication has remained somewhat subjective, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. The chapter then considers immunotherapy, which aims to treat cancer by generating or enhancing an immune response against the tumour. Immunotherapy differs from other methods of cancer treatment in that it does not target the tumour cell directly but instead targets the immune system. Principally, three strategies are utilized: immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell transfer, and cancer vaccines. The chapter also describes how clinical trials of new candidate drugs are currently undertaken.

Chapter

Cover Clinical Biochemistry

Diabetes mellitus and hypoglycaemia  

Allen Yates and Ian Laing

This chapter examines diabetes mellitus and hypoglycaemia. Diabetes mellitus is a consequence of the failure of glucose and lipid handling, two of the main energy sources for the body. This is precipitated by either a complete lack (type 1), or a defective action (type 2), of insulin. The release of insulin by endocrine β cells of the pancreatic islet is controlled by the integrated interplay of glucose, lipid, and incretins. Wide excursions in the blood glucose concentration are normally prevented by insulin and its counter-regulatory hormones glucagon, cortisol, adrenaline, and growth hormone. This balance is disrupted in diabetes. Long-term complications of diabetes, resulting from poor blood glucose control, are severely debilitating and include increased risk of heart attack and stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and limb amputations. The chapter then looks at the wide range of therapies and treatments for diabetes, including bariatric surgery.

Chapter

Cover Organs, Systems, and Surgery

The Heart of the Matter  

This chapter looks at the significance of having a healthy cardiovascular system. It acknowledges how terrifying it would be to have something wrong with a person's heart or circulation system. Thus, surgery offers numerous different options for successful treatments for cardiovascular diseases in parts of the world where healthcare is accessible and affordable. Diseases of the cardiovascular system may affect the blood vessels themselves, or affect the valves, electrical system or muscle of the heart. The chapter then looks into several cardiovascular system issues, such as arrhythmias, aneurysms, ailing pumps, and congenital heart problems before considering the procedure of heart transplantation.