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Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Making the Transition to University Chemistry

Michael Clugston, Malcolm Stewart, and Fabrice Birembaut
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date: 19 July 2024

p. 37 Chapter 4 States of Matterlocked

p. 37 Chapter 4 States of Matterlocked

  • Michael Clugston, Michael Clugstonformerly Tonbridge School
  • Malcolm StewartMalcolm StewartUniversity of Oxford
  •  and Fabrice BirembautFabrice BirembautCaen, France


This chapter explains the states of matter. It notes how a dipole exists if a positive charge is separated from a negative charge by a distance. The bond's polarity and the shape of the molecule are needed to figure out whether polyatomic molecules have a dipole moment. The molecule's polarizability is in proportion with the induced dipole moment. The chapter also notes that intermolecular forces are forces between molecules that can be classified as dipole-dipole forces, dispersion forces, or hydrogen bonding. The chapter also looks at particles and definitions of solids, liquids, and gases. Finally, it lists the four main types of crystalline solids: simple molecular, giant covalent, ionic, and metallic.

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